Grains, Beans, Nuts, and Seeds


Grains, beans, nuts and seeds are all seeds. Rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber, they form the base of most healthy food pyramids. Yet grind grain into flour and suddenly you have a dangerous powder called “refined flour” that is supposed to be avoided like the plague. Gluten intolerance, soy, corn, and peanut allergies are on the rise. What’s going on here?

Yes, these foods are all in the same family—they are all seeds.

Grains are the seeds of grasses.  Examples include:  wheat, corn, oats, and rice

Beans are the seeds of legumes.  Examples include:  peas, lentils, soybeans, and chickpeas.

Nuts are the seeds of trees.  Examples include walnuts, hazelnuts, and pecans.

And seeds are…well…seeds.  Examples include sesame seeds, poppy seeds, and sunflower seeds.

Cut any of these things in half and you‘ll find the same basic structure inside.

This is why there is so much confusion about peanuts, cashews, and almonds, which some people struggle to categorize.  Is a peanut a nut or a legume?  Is quinoa a grain or a seed?  Don’t worry—it doesn’t matter—they are all seeds.  End of story.

What are seeds?

A seed is precious to the plant, since it houses the plant’s embryo—the baby plant—and plants have developed very powerful methods to protect it.   Seeds are designed to survive for a very long time in harsh environments, because they have to sit around and wait for what may be a very long time for conditions to be just right to take root and sprout.  They need to be able to resist cold, heat, insects, worms, bacteria, fungi, and seed-eating animals.  In order to protect themselves from all of these dangers, seeds contain a variety of very smart chemicals, many of which have the potential to disrupt the health of unsuspecting humans.

All plants need help dispersing their seeds, because plants can’t move.  Therefore, plants have evolved very clever ways of dispersing their seeds so that they will go forth and multiply.  Some plants grow tasty fruits around their seeds to entice animals to eat them and carry them away.

But what about grass seeds that have no fruit?  Wheat?  Oats?  Rice? Corn?  Grasses rely primarily on wind to disperse their seeds.  Grains do not come wrapped in sweet fruits, since they’re not designed to be eaten. Grains and legumes were not designed with the health of humans and animals in mind, so no special precautions were taken by the plant to minimize damage to our health. In fact, grains are toxic to humans in their raw state.

Are grains (and other seeds) essential in our diet? 

For the 2 million years before agriculture was invented, our hunter-gatherer ancestors likely ate few, if any grains, so they are clearly not essential.  There have been numerous cultures throughout history (the Inuit Eskimo is a good example) who, even well into the 20th century, ate a completely grain-free diet and were healthy.

Are grains (and other seeds) good for us?

The first time that grains and beans made up any significant portion of the human diet was between 5,000 and 10,000 years ago, when agriculture took hold.  Before agriculture, humans were hunter-gatherers who ate animals and a variety of fruits and vegetables, depending on where they lived and the time of year.  From an evolutionary standpoint, that’s not very long, so most of us have not had enough time to adapt to these difficult foods.  Historical and anthropological records tell us that human health around the world declined in various ways after agriculture was born:  most people were shorter, and their bodies showed evidence of mineral deficiencies, malnutrition, and infectious diseases.  Since dairy products were also added to the human diet at around the same time as grains and legumes, it is hard to be sure whether health declined due to seed foods, dairy products, or both.  However, as you’ll see below, all of the health problems that developed after agriculture could easily have been caused by seed food ingredients, whereas it would be theoretically difficult to tie them to dairy food ingredients (see my dairy page).

Why are we told that grains are healthy? 

We are told that we are supposed to eat at least 3 servings of grain per day, and that half of the grains we eat should be whole grains, yet there is no evidence that grains improve health.  So, where does this advice come from?

There are hundreds of studies proclaiming the health benefits of eating whole grains, but the problem is that these studies compare diets rich in whole grains to diets rich in refined grains and sugars.  These studies do show that whole grains are healthier for us than refined grains (flours), but they do not prove that whole grains are healthy.  In order to prove that, you’d have to compare a diet that contains grains to a diet that contains no grains.  Pretty much any whole food is healthier for us than refined carbohydrates, so proving that whole grains beat refined carbohydrates is…well…a piece of cake.  When you think about it, it doesn’t make sense to say that whole grains are healthy but that powdered grains are dangerous…how can the same food be both incredibly good and incredibly evil?

What makes more sense is to think of it like this:  the more refined a grain is, the worse it is for you.  The reason for this is probably that pulverizing the grains into flour releases more of the carbohydrates and other potentially damaging contents lurking inside the kernel.  If we eat grains whole, the tough outer bran coating, or hull, of the grain keeps more of these pesky particles inside the grain.  If we remove the hull by “polishing” the grain (white rice is a good example), there is nothing left to protect our bodies from being exposed to the starches and proteins inside.

Are nuts and seeds healthier than grains and beans? 

I don’t know.

“Paleo” style diets allow nuts and seeds but not grains and beans, because many of our ancestors would likely have been eating nuts and seeds long before the invention of agriculture.   Most nuts and some seeds do not require any processing to be edible, whereas all grains and legumes must be soaked, fermented, and/or thoroughly cooked in order not to cause immediate illness.  Our ancestors have probably been eating nuts and seeds for a lot longer than they have been eating grains and legumes, so even though nuts and seeds contain similarly risky ingredients, it is possible that our genes have learned how to better handle nut and seed compounds because we have been exposed to them for hundreds of thousands of years.  The best theoretical explanation I can think of for why nuts in particular may be healthier than grains, beans, or seeds, is that nuts and seeds are protected by their hard shells and therefore may not need to incorporate as many defensive chemicals in their flesh as naked beans and grains, but I have not been able to find evidence of this possibility in the scientific literature [if you have information that can help to answer this question, please contact me].

Are grains, beans, nuts and seeds nutritious?

Grains are so low in nutritional value that most cereal products in the United States are fortified with vitamins and minerals.

Of the four categories of seed foods, beans are usually thought of as being the most nutritious, due to their high protein content.  As you can see from the nutrition information for cooked pinto beans, they are mostly made of starch (carbohydrate–something the body has no need for), along with some protein, fiber, and some iron.

Yes, there is some protein and some iron in these foods as well.  However, all of these nutrients, because they come from seed foods, come with some baggage, as you’ll see below.


Seed proteins are typically of lower quality due to missing essential amino acids (quinoa and soy are notable exceptions).  For example, wheat protein is particularly low in lysine.  Corn is especially low in tryptophan.  Legumes (including soybeans) are especially low in sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine.

Some of the proteins in seeds are naturally difficult for us to digest because of their special structure.

Some seed proteins are defensive molecules that are designed to irritate non-plant cells.


The outer coatings of seeds are armed with proteins called lectins (aka phytohemagglutinins, or agglutinins), which are part of the plant’s immune system.  Lectins can recognize friend from foe by reading carbohydrates on the surfaces of the cells of would-be invaders.   When a seed is stressed or damaged, lectins are released to identify and attack potential enemies.  One of the many ways they can fend off an attack is to zero in on targets (such as bacteria), bind to their signature carbohydrates, and then cause them to clump together (agglutination) so they cannot advance.  Insects, not people, are the natural predators of grains, so lectins can also cause infertility in insects.

Lectins are found in all plants and animals, not just in beans and grains.  However, animal lectins and plant lectins are different; animal lectins are not known to harm the cells of other animals, whereas plant lectins can be risky for humans and other animals.  The highest concentrations of the most potent plant lectins are found in the seeds, roots, young shoots, and bark of plants.  In seeds, lectins are primarily found in the bran-rich outer coating, which is one reason why even whole grains are not necessarily healthy. Lectins can also be found in the oils of seeds and nuts.  The most important food sources of lectins are grains, beans, nuts, seeds, tomatoes, white potatoes, limes, cinnamon, and Jerusalem artichokes.

What can lectins do to humans?

Lectins, because they bind to specific carbohydrates on the surfaces of living cells, are very reactive.  You can think of them as being sticky.

Lectins can bind to glycoproteins on the surface of our intestinal cells.  Lectins have been shown in laboratory studies (in vitro) to damage human intestinal cells and in animal studies to poke holes in their intestinal linings, causing increased intestinal permeability (leaky gut). Leaky gut syndromes in humans have been associated with autoimmune diseases such as:  rheumatoid arthritis, Celiac disease, type I diabetes, and multiple sclerosis.

We know that lectins cross into our bloodstream because healthy people have antibodies to lectins in their blood. In the bloodstream, lectins can bind to red blood cells, causing them to clump together (or “agglutinate”).  Clumped blood cells are then destroyed by the body, so high doses of lectins can cause anemia.

Lectins can also bind to our immune cells and cause them to clump together, weakening our immune system.  However, lectins can also bind to immune cells (mast cells and T cells) and activate them; this is a potential path to allergies and autoimmune diseases. They can also trigger white blood cells to release pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Lectins can enter cells, and once inside, they can bind to and inactivate ribosomes, which are the tiny protein factories inside of our cells.

In laboratory science, lectins are well-known as “mitogens”—which means that they can cause cells to multiply in a cancerous fashion.  In laboratory studies, lectins can bind to immune cells called lymphocytes (T cells in particular) and trigger cancerous changes.  In clinical human studies, ingestion of peanuts has been shown to have the ability to cause cancerous proliferation of colon cells.

How to reduce the lectin content of foods

Most lectins can be completely inactivated by pre-soaking foods and then bringing them to a full boil for 15 minutes.  Dry heat (baking or roasting) is not as effective as prolonged boiling, so baked goods made with grain or bean flours are not as safe as boiled products. Dry roasting only removes about 75% of the lectins from raw peanuts.  Toasted wheat germ contains active lectins, as well.  Lectins laugh at stomach acid, and many lectins resist digestion by our intestinal enzymes.  Lectins are the reason why grains and beans should never be eaten raw (kidney bean lectin is very toxic if eaten raw or undercooked, and will cause severe vomiting).

Sprouting reduces (but does not eliminate) lectins because once the seed starts to germinate and form a baby plant, much of the lectin protein gets broken down to nourish the growing seedling.  However, some lectins remain to protect the growing plant.

Thus, there are really only two ways to protect yourself from the many potential hazards of lectins:  prolonged boiling or avoidance.

There are many different types of lectins, with different carbohydrate targets, attack strategies, and potencies.  The best-studied of the food lectins are:  wheat germ agglutinin, peanut lectin, kidney bean lectin, soybean lectins, potato lectin and tomato lectin.  In the future I will be writing more about these foods and their specific lectins.


What is gluten? 

Gluten is not a single protein; there are hundreds of proteins in the gluten family. Glutens are proteins found only in the following grains:

  • Wheat (bulgur, durum, farina, graham, kamut, matzah, seitan, semolina, spelt)
  • Barley (malt)
  • Rye
  • Triticale

[Oat crops are often rotated or milled with wheat products, so oats are sometimes cross-contaminated with wheat glutens.] 

Glutens are simply seed storage proteins—they are designed to nourish the plant embryo when it comes time to sprout.  Sounds innocent enough…yet, glutens are not only the well-established cause of Celiac disease, a serious autoimmune condition affecting more than 1 in 100 people, but are also the cause of gluten sensitivity, which affects (probably many more than) 7 in 100 people.

Glutens and other storage proteins are found on the inside of all seed foods (in the endosperm), not in the bran-rich outer coating, which is probably why refined (powdered) grains are potentially less healthy than whole grains.  All seeds contain storage proteins, but only the wheat family contains glutens.  So, what’s so special about gluten?

Glutens contain stretches of repetitive amino acid sequences (rich in proline and glutamine) that are particularly difficult for our enzymes to digest.  [Remember, the mother plant does not want this protein to be digested by anyone else other than the baby plant.]  Proteins that contain proline-rich sequences are called “prolamins”, and they are thought to be particularly irritating to our immune systems.  All grains contain prolamins, but the types found in wheat (gliadin), rye (secalin), and barley (horedin), seem to be particularly irritating to the immune systems of susceptible individuals.  [A small number of people are also sensitive to avenin, the prolamin found in oats.]

The problem with gluten being poorly digestible is not just that we have a hard time extracting nutritious proteins from gluten-rich foods.  The problem is that partially digested glutens, which are called “toxic gliadin peptides”, can wreak havoc with the digestive and immune systems of genetically susceptible individuals, leading to gluten sensitivity and Celiac disease.

Wheat Allergy

People who are have a true allergy to wheat are reacting to a specific wheat protein called omega-5 gliadin.  This protein is only found in wheat—not in barley, rye, or triticale.  

Seed “Antinutrients” 

An “antinutrient” is anything that interferes with the ability of the body to digest, absorb, or utilize a nutrient.  Antinutrients in seed foods include enzyme inhibitors and phytic acid.

Enzyme Inhibitors

Seed foods contain compounds that work against our digestive enzymes, making it harder for us to break foods down.  These include protease inhibitors, which block protein digestion, and amylase inhibitors, which block starch digestion.  Amylase inhibitors do not survive digestion, so they are not a concern.  Protease inhibitors are mostly destroyed by cooking, so, in well-cooked seed foods, these would also not be a problem.

Phytic Acid

Phytic acid, however, cannot be destroyed by cooking.  The name phytic acid essentially means “plant acid” and was so named because it is not found in animal foods.  It is located primarily in the bran-rich outer coating of seeds, which is one reason why even whole grains are not necessarily healthy.

Phytic acid is a mineral magnet.  It binds to certain minerals in the foods we eat, and removes them from our bodies.  This can lead to mineral deficiencies, such as iron deficiency anemia.  [The form of iron found in plant foods is difficult to absorb to begin with, because it is in the “non-heme” form, instead of the “heme” form found in animal foods.]

Below are results from an experiment showing that bran blocks the absorption of about 90% of the iron in wheat rolls, both in omnivores and in long-time vegetarians.  This demonstrates that, even in people who have been eating high-plant diets for years, the body does not adapt to the antinutrient effects of phytic acid:

[Brune et al 1989]


*Taking vitamin C or eating vitamin C-rich foods along with high-phytate foods can improve mineral absorption.

Phytic acid is best at binding to “positively charged, multivalent cations”, which means that it prefers minerals with more than one positive charge, such as iron (Fe+2), calcium (Ca+2), Zinc (Zn+2), Magnesium (Mg+2) and Copper (Cu+2), which are all essential minerals that we must obtain from our diet.  [It is not good at binding minerals like sodium (Na+1) or potassium (K+1), which have only one positive charge.]

Phytic acid can also bind to food proteins and to our digestive enzymes, interfering with protein absorption.

Which foods are highest in phytic acid?

Phytic acid is found in all parts of plants, and therefore is found in all plant foods; however, the vast majority of it is located in seeds, where its job is to hold on tightly to the essential minerals (phosphorus, iron, zinc, etc.) that the baby plant will need to grow.  Once the seed begins to sprout, phytic acid gets broken down so that those vital minerals can be released to the baby plant. This is why non-seed parts of the plant contain extremely low concentrations of phytic acid.

The amount of phytic acid in any given seed food varies tremendously, depending on a variety of factors—environmental conditions, age, plant variety, etc, so it’s hard to say, but some research indicates that seeds contain highest levels, followed by grains, and then legumes.  The phytic acid content of nuts runs the gamut from low to high.

How to reduce phytic acid content

Most phytic acid is not digested; it survives our stomach acid and our intestinal enzymes, making it all the way down into the colon, where bacteria can start to break it down.  Phytic acid does not appear to be absorbed by our systems, so it can only interfere with minerals in our digestive tract, not in our bloodstream or inside of our cells.  Most phytic acid leaves our system intact, carrying minerals away with it.

Phytic acid is not affected by prolonged storage. Phytic acid cannot be destroyed by cooking, not even with prolonged boiling.  Extrusion cooking, which is used by manufacturers in the industrial production of breakfast cereals, for example, barely reduces phytic acid content.

Phytic acid might be partially reduced by soaking and/or sprouting.  For example, when performed properly, under just the right conditions, between 1/3 to 2/3 of phytic acid can be removed from beans.

Fermentation, particularly sourdough fermentation, is the most effective method for removing phytic acid from foods, because microorganisms, unlike humans, have the ability to digest phytic acid.

Seed Starches

Plants store energy as starch, which is just a bunch of simple sugar molecules linked together.  Seeds are very high in starch because the baby plant will need a source of energy when it starts growing.

Much of the starch inside seeds is either amylose or amylopectin, which are both made of long chains of glucose molecules, and therefore easily broken down into glucose and absorbed as glucose into the bloodstream.  However, there are two types of seed carbohydrates that our digestive enzymes can’t break down:

  • Fructo-oligosaccharides (chains of fructose molecules) 
  • Galacto-oligosaccharides (chains of galactose + glucose + fructose).  Examples include raffinose and stachyose. 

Beans, beans, the wonderful fruit…

Most seed foods contain some combination of the indigestible carbohydrates listed above, but beans are best known for causing digestive problems.  This is because legumes are especially high in the galacto-oligosaccharides stachyose and raffinose. 

Bacteria living in the colon make an enzyme called “alpha-galactosidase” which can break apart the sugar molecules in these carbohydrates.  Then the bacteria proceed to ferment those sugars, creating unwelcome gases:  carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and/or methane.   Beano® contains the same enzyme that bacteria use.  By swallowing Beano® before eating beans, raffinose and stachyose will get broken down into sugars long before reaching the colon, so the small intestine can absorb the sugars before the bacteria can get to them.

Of note, rice is extremely low in indigestible carbohydrates, and therefore very little gas is produced during its digestion. Spelt is also quite low in these substances.

Cyanogenic Glycosides 

These innocent chemicals are mainly found lurking deep inside the rugged pits of fruits, such as apricots, peaches, cherries, mangoes, and plums.  These types of seeds are virtually indestructible without tools, and it’s a good thing we can’t chew them open.  When these seeds are damaged, the nontoxic glycosides mix with an activating enzyme and poof—you’ve got cyanide.  Other foods that can generate cyanide include:  bitter almonds, marzipan, bamboo shoots, cassava root (tapioca), lima beans, sorghum, apple seeds and pear seeds.  Proper processing of these foods by grinding, boiling and soaking can remove the cyanide and make them safe to eat.

The human body can detoxify tiny quantities of cyanide, but at higher doses, cyanide can interfere with iodine within your thyroid gland and cause goiter or hypothyroidism.  At higher doses still, cyanide can suffocate your mitochondria (your cells’ energy generators), which can be fatal.

Bottom line about seed foods

Of all natural plant and animal foods available to humans, seed foods are the foods most likely to endanger human health.  Therefore, eliminating foods from this family is the single most important dietary change you can make to improve and protect your health.

For people who either choose not to eat animal foods, or do not have access to animal foods, this food group does contain the highest amounts of protein of all of the plant foods, and can be a far less expensive source of protein than meat and dairy products.


  • these proteins can be difficult to digest, partly due to their nature and partly due to anti-nutrients within these foods
  • certain proteins, such as gluten, can be particularly irritating to the digestive tract and immune system of susceptible individuals
  • lectins within seed foods are potentially hazardous, making boiling or steaming to remove these risky substances before consumption very important.

Some of the starches in seed foods cannot be digested by our intestinal enzymes, therefore they ferment in the colon, creating gases.

The mineral thief phytic acid is very difficult to completely remove from these foods, even with fermentation techniques, therefore these foods significantly increase the risk for mineral deficiencies, especially iron deficiency and associated anemia. Taking Vitamin C can improve the absorption of iron.

If you choose to eat seed foods such as grains, it is best to eat them whole, rather than ground into refined flours.

Rice may be safer and more comfortable to eat than other grains because it

  • does not contain gluten
  • is extremely low in indigestible starches
  • is typically boiled (or steamed) before eaten, which destroys all lectins

It is unclear to me whether nuts and seeds are healthier than grains and legumes.

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  • Halli Magg

    A very informative article and well written. It would though been nice to see also a little bit on goitrogens for completeness sake.

  • Hello, Halli

    Thank you for your feedback. Yes, I agree, there’s a lot more to cover! For those of you who don’t know what a goitrogen is, it is any chemical that interferes with the normal function of the thyroid gland, and therefore can, in some situations, cause a goiter (enlarged thyroid). Over time, I will be adding sections about individual foods, such as wheat, soy, and corn, including information about how their ingredients affect our health.There will also be information about goitrogens on my vegetables page in the near future. However, I did conduct a quick review of soy goitrogens for a presentation I gave about the food pyramid last year, and can provide the following tidbit for you for today:

    Soy phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) are plant signaling and defense compounds that are structurally similar to mammalian estrogens and have been shown in laboratory (in vitro) studies to inhibit thyroid peroxidase, the enzyme needed to manufacture thyroid hormone. They have also been shown in human studies to increase the risk of hypothyroidism [Sathyapalan T et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96(5)

  • Des

    Hi Dr. Ede, in the future, can you also talk about the benefits (if any) of root vegetables such as sweet potatoes, carrots, etc?

    • Hi Des

      I might eventually cover each of these vegetables as part of their respective families (i.e. I will soon be posting about nightshades, including potatoes). However, root vegetables in general are simply sources of starch. As carbohydrates go, fruits and roots are the healthiest (oldest) sources of carbohydrates, but once carbohydrate sensitivity/insulin resistance sets in, even these older, healthier starches can be problematic, since they break down in to simple sugars.

  • Rick Stewart

    What about coffee beans? Do they have any of the plant defense mechanisms that can wreck our health? Thanks!

    • Hi Rick

      Good question. The short answer is yes, because they are beans. I will be writing a whole blog article about coffee in the near future. It has always puzzled me that Paleo diet fans think of coffee (and chocolate!) as Paleo foods, when they are both clearly made from legumes. In the fall I gave a talk to a Paleo meetup group in Boston and you should have heard the collective cry when I happened to casually mention that coffee is a legume…


        The Paleo diet does say to not drink coffee so many must be in denial. Thanks for your great article here!

        • Hi writemiso,
          Thank so much for reading–yes, it’s so funny–even at the Ancestral Health Symposium in Cambridge last August, the lines for coffee and dark chocolate by high-end vendors in the lobby were quite long!

      • Sara A

        uh, yeah…there’s not much let most of us enjoy. My organic dark roast and cacao nibs give me quality of life and great antioxidants.

  • Hi Whole9Dallas!

    Touche and thank you–I am a big fan of proper classification and appreciate the correction and the information:) Not annoying–helfpul! I tend to lump grains, beans, nuts and seeds together as seeds–an approach that has its advantages and disadvantages, for sure. Keep on keeping me honest, here!

  • Sanda Preuett-Shea

    I am a mother. My daughter has a severe allergic reaction to peanuts as well as milder allergic reaction to soy, milk, grass, egg……. I am trying to change her diet. Avoiding all peanuts and possible cross contaminates. I am nursing a child with unknown allergies. I am also a Speech-Language Pathologist(SLP). In Kansas, the SLP is the primary therapist that works with “feeding concerns”. I work with children 0-3 with “special needs”. I am in search of the most advantageous diet for health and development. (in utero, breastmilk, babies, toddlers, children, people). On March 25th, 2013, I plan to take my child for a consultation on OIT with Dr. Wasserman. I am always sidetracked because I am looking for “cause” In short, I loved your article. I need more information but I have limited time for research and I think you can help me and I in turn will help others. Keep the articles coming.

    • Dear Sandra,
      I am glad you have found this information helpful, and I hope you will find information on the rest of the site useful, as well. I wish you the best at your consultation later in March and know that if you continue to search for answers, you will find them. Thank you for writing, and good luck!

      • David

        Coincidentally found your site and love it! Finally a (effectively) mainstream critical competent physician, you should outrank the garbage sites on google (webmd and such junk). I trust soon you will, looking at the number of comments on your quality articles.

        Like many here, I do have a question (yes) but different – at least I couldn’t find that anyone asked you this so precisely.
        I do appreciate your advice about say, the benefits of consuming some animal protein, fat and cholesterol, etc etc, yet I feel lost as to what we truly can eat without regret:
        – meats are insanely full of medicaments that are routinely (“prophylaxis”) fed in the modern food chain.
        – dairy products are harmful then for just the same reasons as they are obtained from the same cows and other cattle used in the food chain.
        – grains and all other seeds (great classification, thanks!) are to be avoided because of their lectins and pesticides etc.
        – processed foods must be avoided because they are chock-full of artificial additives, many of which acutally are cell toxins.
        – coffee, tea, and alcohol should be avoided because .. too much to mention here!

        Can you understand that I feel lost? I don’t know how to make it through the day with the various diets that have been recommended to me over the years.

        Worse in my case, for decades (since puberty if precision is helpful here) I have been plagued with bloat, but not just bloat, think of airships and you get the right idea of proportions… And no doctor has been able to pinpoint the cause (and thus if a remedy is feasible).

        Basically, my question now is: What diet should I follow that does least harm in general (applicable to anyone) and especially in my case? Or even, maybe you know the cause and you have an idea of a real remedy?

        (I do not use these social sites, but I have bookmarked your site so I WILL see your reply, if any)

  • Adel-Alexander

    Then what kind of carbohydrates can I eat that are complex? And I’m not talking about vegestables!

    • Hello, Adel-Alexander

      Never fear–complex carbs are not necessary for health anyway, because carbohydrates are not necessary for health (please see my carbohydrates page). However, if you choose to eat them, good sources of complex carbohydrates include starchy root vegetables such as carrots and sweet potatoes, and certain fruits–examples include plantains, squashes, bananas, and avocado.

  • Hi Laura–glad you are enjoying the site:) Strangely, I was not able to locate the 1993 Thompson article on PubMed, although I found many other articles by her having to do with phytates and blood sugar regulation and such. Regardless, yes, I would say as you suggest that just because a particular chemical when isolated has an effect on blood sugar and insulin responses does not mean it is “healthy” when you stand back and look at the big picture. The most effective (non-toxic) way to reduce blood sugar and insulin spikes is to avoid foods that cause them in the first place. The link to the second article is broken, but my guess is that they are referring to health benefits suggested by either epidemiological studies or by flawed animal studies or by human studies that do not provide direct evidence of benefit (please see my vegetables page or my vegetables video for more info). Thanks for reading!

    • Laura

      Thank you for responding! I really appreciate it. 🙂

  • Lorraine S.

    Best most accurate article on the subject, I’ve read. Most people still think grains are not seeds! Also, appreciate the ‘I don’t know’ on the subject of nuts and seeds.

  • Lorraine S.

    I don’t know how it’s possible to get enough to eat, if one is not eating complex carbohydrates, which you say in a previous comment, is not necessary for existence. Can you please discuss in numbers, the amount of calories we should be getting? I am a 44 year old woman, 5 ft 7, 107 lbs approx., and very lean and athletic. Sometimes I am just hungry! I eat: vegetables both starchy and non, fish, poultry, game, fresh fruit, white rice. When I have only two meals a day, I’m famished. But even at 3, I still get hungry. I exercise a minimum of 1 hour a day, but even when I don’t, I’m still hungry.

    • Hi Lorraine

      Calories–a complicated question. Some of us need many more calories than others because our metabolic rates and activity levels differ so much. The question is: how many calories do you personally need? From the data you present, your BMI (body mass index for those who aren’t familiar with the term) is 16.8, which is considered below the lower limit of healthy (minimum healthy BMI is 18.5). You are most likely hungry because you simply need more food. If you eat enough calories to bring yourself up to a healthy weight (a BMI of at least 20 is good to aim for in most cases) and you are still hungry, it could be the fruits and rice and starch that artificially elevate your hunger levels, so you could re-evaluate your situation at that point.

    • Sara A

      instead of fixating on a number, fixate on the content. Proteins and fats aren’t treated the same as carbs. If you’re frequently hungry you may have leptin resistance. There are two schools of thought on treating it,both involve eliminating anything spiking your blood sugar. One uses intermittent fasting (going 6 hours without eating), the other eating 5-6 times/day. No hardcore studies to say one over the other.

    • twitchyfirefly

      How much fat are you getting? Fat is a great energy source and also satiating. If you’re trying to eat low-fat, that might explain the hunger.

    • When I was in my early 20s I learned about eating a raw vegan diet… But I could not get enough to eat to be able to sustain myself,, so I would always go back,,, Then some 30 years later I found Raw Vegans who are really doing it… What I learned is that they eat copious amounts of Fruits and Vegetables,,, Many just lots of fruits…Like 30 pieces a day or 3000 calories of fruit. They helped me see that to be successful at eating a Raw Vegan Diet I would have to eat many times more vegetables and fruits than I ever had… When I think of it animals who eat plant based eat all the time…

      • Hi Karen

        In my opinion, a raw vegan diet is very dangerous for the body. It is lacking in key nutrients that we need for our brains and bodies to function properly: Human beings must eat protein and fat regularly. If you personally know people who eat a raw vegan diet, inquire about all aspects of their health and well-being, not just their weight or cholesterol levels, to see whether or not their diet is truly working for them. Energy level? Digestive problems? Skin/hair health? Mood problems? Sleep? Chronic pain? Appetite? Do they look and feel well?

        • The reason for my post was to show that if you want to you can make a diet low in complex carbs work, you just have to eat more of the less complex carbs… Not so much to recommend a raw vegan diet, sorry if that did not come through… I tried for years to make a raw vegan diet work but was not eating enough, and when you eat enough of the right things it can be done… Healthy or not…

          • Today I am having 3 pastured eggs, ham, cabbage, bell pepper & onion… It is not my usual Oatmeal…

          • Hi Karen

            Thanks for clarifying–I couldn’t tell from your first post what you thought of the raw vegan diet and whether you were hoping to be able to achieve that goal for yourself. I also was just curious whether you personally knew people who are following that diet or whether they were people you’d read about or heard about but never met, because if you knew them I’d be very interested in hearing how they’re doing! And glad to know you are eating some animal protein, fat and cholesterol–so good for the body and brain:)

  • Vic

    I am fond of Almond Nuts. Are they unhealthy? Are they classed as a nut or a seed?

    • Hi Vic

      I wish I could answer this question better than I am about to…my personal opinion, based on everything I’ve read about grains, beans, nuts and seeds, is that these foods are not healthy for us in general, regardless of which category they officially fall into. However, as I wrote in the article above, it is possible that almonds, because they have shells to protect them, may contain fewer potentially hazardous ingredients within their flesh than grains, beans, and seeds do, but I can’t find any scientific information that proves or disproves that possibility.

      • Sara A

        does that mean the same for macadamias?

        • I presume so.

          • Dan Ordoins

            What about cocnuts?

  • Jody

    Very interesting!! I am a Registered Dietitian who “trashed” my gut on the vegan diet a few years ago. I ate beans twice/day (for adequate protein and iron) and of course lots of whole grains. I quit all legumes and the gut is healing, but I am thinking it’s time to get off the grains, as well. Thank you, Dr. Ede!

    • Hi Jody,
      How wonderful to have a Registered Dietician interested in new ways of thinking about food and health! I hope you will find a way to use your experiences to help your patients.

    • Rick Stewart

      Hi Jody- Do you have anything to report after four years? How are things going?

  • Alexandra Jabr

    Interesting info. I’ve recently started having “flare ups” with a bloated tummy and signs of leaky gut again. I’ve already eliminated gluten and grains, even gave up my full fat dairy most recently, and things just continue to get worse. This morning, I began to suspect that my new habit of stashing some seeds and nuts in my backpack to eat between classes daily are to blame. This article is reaffirming it, so out they go! Hoping to see some results sooner than later. I’m also excited to read about your Ketogenic experience. I’ve dabbled in it with remarkable results and am going to begin measuring my blood ketones tomorrow for the month of Feb.

    • LJ

      I buy only raw organic nuts & seeds, then soak them for a day and then put in oven for 170 degrees for about 5-6 hrs. If you have a dehydrator then even better. Don’t buy any nut or seed product off the shelf. Or try finding sprouted nuts and seeds. Some markets have that in the bulk food section or as a nut butter.

  • Susan Vaughn

    I have recently watched many videos on gluten. They are all saying that gluten is in all grains and can’t be avoided. However, they’ve been given different names in different grains. Another video said that no human on earth can digest gluten. There are over 160 illnesses that arise from gluten sensitivity. Celiacs disease is just one of them. I have had multiple food sensitivities since birth. I am genetically unable to eat gluten. My grandmother died of gluten sensitivity but no one diagnosed the problem. My father has Parkinson’s disease which is caused by gluten sensitivity. Please watch Wheat Belly by William Davis, and Grain Brain by Dr. Perlmutter. The best video was by Dr. Tom Obryan. who told me exactly why I have had every health problem I’ve had since birth. Just about every disease on the planet has gluten sensitivity at its core. I always knew that all the foods I am sensitive to had something in common but I did not know what. Through cross -reacting, I am allergic to the gluten in all grains, including rice, and to the lectins in all nuts. and seeds. Now that I know the problem I can finally get well.

    • LJ

      I’ve read that too, many great books. I also came across a study done in Australia where they found gluten in corn. I had to take corn (taco shells, polenta, popcorn all organic) out of my diet, I was reacting to that. The scientist just don’t know all of it yet and it’s just best to get these grains out of your diet. I also can’t eat rice of any form.

  • Rayca

    I couldn’t disagree more. Seeds are “toxic” so that foraging insects and prey will not eat them. Plants are our lifeblood and seeds are plants. They contain the most protein of non-animal foods for a reason…because they are the best source of it, along with carbs and phytonutrients. Everything we need to survive. Obviously, they are not toxic to humans, or I would think we would have become extinct 5-10,000 years ago. I find it hard to imagine that the likes of an Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein or a Bill Gates would have been possible without carbs. Think of how we have developed since we’ve been eating them. We basically went from Neanderthals to a progressive, industrialized world. I credit harvesting grains and agriculture with some of those accomplishments. There’s also evolution. I’m sure Mr. Darwin had his fair share of healthy carb sources and I don’t think we have “evolved” to eating healthy carb sources by accident. I don’t have any problem digesting beans. Sure, you may need to get used to them, but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t do that. The health benefits outweigh any toxic or digestive issues. They are quite easy to get used to, not to mention filling and full of fiber (no cravings). So, you have protein, carb, phytonutrients and lots of fiber. Is there anything else that we need that they don’t have? I understand folks that have intolerances and can’t eat certain foods. But to just blame seeds on carb intolerances when it’s JUNK FOOD that has caused the dietary misery in this world, is not correct. Nature must have really screwed up offering us this bounty if it’s just a toxic waste for our systems.

    • Felix

      Pretty much everything has some toxins of one form or another in there. I think your interpretation of the article is a bit misguided. It’s not that ‘grains will kill everybody’. They’re just so energy packed that we can exploit them, and yet just below the toxicity levels that make us die young. Evolutionary, as long as we made it to 45 or so, our kids were grown up and thriving on their own. Besides, living in larger towns has also meant that we’ve been able to have more ‘sick days’, lethargy, and not be left behind by our tribe or attacked by a leopard or even other humans.. We live in a much safer world.

    • Amanda Stockham

      And that is an important concept. Most changes to diet…depending on how toxic to your system something was…there is a HUGE storm before the calm…it is called “detoxifying”. A lot of people I know switching from…say almond milk to soy or vice versa…soy to almond, experience some level of upset when they do it. What they typically decide is that their system is reacting badly to the NEW food rather than adopt the possibility that their body is removing toxins or histamines…metals…whatever…from their body that were stored or put there from the food they stopped eating. What is ACTUALLY best to do when that happens is DOUBLE DOWN on the new and PACK it in and get the old out FASTER. In EVERY case I’ve advised people to do that, they were glad they stuck it out. The only time I advise them to stop is if their blood type is flat out advised to not consume it and the symptoms they are having go beyond a bit of digestive discomfort and they are having allergic reactions on an anaphylactic level that benadryl won’t touch until they are through the first 72 hours of detoxifying. That 72 hour window is HELL for some, but it seems to be the key. If the human body can have a total turn around in 72 hours from removing a toxic food and all of the sudden being given a GOOD food and THRIVING….people who are sick for decades and months are getting horrible advice from their physicians and medical professionals. Homeostasis isn’t an “ideal” it is a given and when the human body is cared for properly, ANYone can achieve it. You just have to listen to your body…and NOT someone else.

  • Cynthia Albert

    I am a registered nurse following the SCD as I have had better success with it over the Paleo diet with my celiac disease. I also combine foods so that I am not eating a complex starch with protein, etc. After reading your article on lectins, I am wondering if I should be avoiding the walnuts, almond flour, and cashew butter that have become a staple in my diet (more of the latter which I use in many recipes). I avoid nightshade vegetables like eggplant, peppers, potatoes, and tomatoes. So to paraphrase my question, are cashews best avoided?

  • Russ 88

    Hi Dr. Ede,

    I wrote a comment about 3 days ago and it has disappeared. Did I say something wrong, or might there be a problem with Disqus? If you want to comment privately, please email me at my Disqus address.

    Sincerely, Russ 88

  • Russ 88

    Here is that post, with links removed:
    Hi Dr. Ede,
    The post I was laboring on just went poof, so please forgive me if this turns out
    to be a duplication. You wrote “Over time, I will be adding sections
    about individual foods, such as wheat, soy, and corn, including
    information about how their ingredients affect our health.” I have a
    suggestion for the wheat section. After reading “Grain Brain, The
    Surprising Truth About Wheat, Carbs, and Sugar – Your Brain’s Silent
    Killers” by David Perlmutter, MD, I was led to an article by Alessio
    Fasano on zonulin, which, he claims, when activated by gluten fragments,
    opens the tight junctions in the epithelial layer of the gut, causing
    “leaky gut”. Google: “Zonulin and Its Regulation of Intestinal Barrier
    Function: The Biological Door to Inflammation, Autoimmunity, and
    Cancer”. This article explains, in detail, your statement in the Gluten
    section above: “The problem is that partially digested glutens, which
    are called “toxic gliadin peptides”, can wreak havoc with the digestive
    and immune systems of genetically susceptible individuals, leading to
    gluten sensitivity and Celiac disease.” Figure 14 is particularly
    informative. It appears that gluten is even more toxic than is generally
    recognized. Your readers might find knowing the details beneficial. For
    those into vids, there is a good one on youtube by Alessio Fasano on
    zonulin, by IHMC, titled: “Alessio Fasano – Spectrum of Gluten-Related
    Disorders: People Shall Not Live by Bread Alone”.

    Thank you so very much for providing such an informative and valuable site. I really appreciate it.

    • Margie

      I found this site by accident and found it very informative. I have had a constipation problem for years and am my wits end having read and made dietary changes a lot. But, I have done all the wrong things and my problem has worsened. I added a lot of nuts and beans to my diet for the “fibre”, Drink lots of water, added Yogurt for the probiotics, and the problem has only increased. Thank you for this article, I will change directions and see if I can get relief from this problem.

      • Hi Margie

        Welcome! Glad you find the article helpful, and I hope you are able to figure out what your culprits are! Please feel free to keep us posted along the way as you discover what works best for you.

    • Edith D Thurman

      Yes. Did you know a brain tumor can NOT grow without carbs! It will shrink and die. Then again like one person said about the population of our planet without grains over half would starve. Look at India yes they live on rice, but if soaked brown rice (basmati) actually improved my auto immune disease of course I was eating it with tons of turmeric and curry in it 🙂

      • Amanda Stockham

        Cancer thrives in acid rich environments. When people eat properly and their pH is balanced…alkaline and acid balance….cancer won’t grow. The amount of acid it takes to process NON grass fed dairy ALONE is enough in some bodies to cause cancer. Heaven help you if it is hormone produced on top of corn fed dairy. You might as well pick out your casket. I just went through this discussion, bilateral double PARTIAL mastectomy, and radiation/chemo treatment discussion and process with my mother in law. No matter what I told her, she didn’t listen to me. She has lost all her hair, she had to have a second surgery because they did biopsies in her first and found the cancer had metastisized to EVERY gland she had…adrenals, thyroid…all of it. She finally believed me when I said she needed to quit the dairy and get on a plant based diet…like soy, rice, or oat milk. But, by then it was too late and she’d opted for aggressive treatments. I know they are going to tell her in 6 months that she has cancer again. For whatever reason, my body being void of it doesn’t seem to make a difference for her lol The things I have been telling her are proven and KNOWN in quite a few medical circles. Why she opted for the gamble of putting poison in her veins and hoping it killed the cancer before her, I don’t know. Most doctors bet wrongly on the patient and the patient dies.

        There are far better ways to treat cancer than the current, commonly accepted modes. Which is really sad.

        • Edith D Thurman

          I agree but do not believe DIY is one of them. You might as well take hormone replacement therapy, because it acts the same way in your body organic or not. Yes I would never do chemo or any of that crap.

      • Thelight

        The world starves now (mostly people of color) because white supremacy reigns supreme and exhausts most of the world’s resources: food, water, electricity, etc.

  • twitchyfirefly

    Is there any bad health effect from bacteria fermenting indigestible carbs like those in beans (creating methane gas), or just social effects? Aren’t soluble fiber prebiotics in this class (i.e. inulin, glucomannan) or are they different?

    • Hello, twitchyfirefly

      I haven’t researched this topic yet myself so I hesitate to comment. I will say I’m skeptical about there being positive health effects from fermenting indigestible carbs (prebiotics), as seems to be all the rage lately, but until I’ve had a chance to delve in to the science, I can’t be sure. Coming soon to a blog post near you…

  • mary

    I just wanted to say that this entire discussion may be spot on….but that doesn’t change the fact that if we want to feed the now 7-8 BILLION humans, we need to be able to eat things OTHER than animals because that’s just about the worst thing for our planet. Raising animals for human consumption is destroying this tiny little place we call home. And more BILLIONS of humans (that we know are coming within a very short time) means more need for food. If that food is going to be animals, well, the Earth is doomed. Not that it isn’t already more than likely going to heck, it’ll certainly go there if we blanket it with cattle, pigs and chickens. And the oceans will be void of life, too.

    • Felix

      Earth won’t be doomed, the world as we know it to humans will be
      doomed… But a peak population of 11 Billion people (2100 estimates) is
      pretty much not sustainable no matter what we eat.. Yet Africa’s
      birthrate is still far higher than their death rate! Can you imagine 4
      billion people in a small mostly desert continent? It’s insane. But, it was
      agricultural revolution made it all possible in the first place! Is it worth eating crap and making ourselves sick in the process, just to accommodate more people? Birthrate is the real problem.

      • Neil Leslie Evans

        Let’s be clear about the issue of overpopulation. First, the most densely-populated regions of the world are outside Africa. Look at a population-density map of the world; western Europe, eastern USA, the eastern seaboard of China, Japan, India, and the Nile river valley in Egypt all have extremely high population densities.
        Second, much of Africa is forced by a warped global economic and trade system to export food to the rich countries, which is obviously bad for Africa, benefits the rich world and compromises Earth’s capacity for sustainability, as African food consumed in Europe and America adds thousands of food-miles to each meal (ie pollutes and unnecessarily creates greenhouse gases.)
        Third, it is well-documented that poverty is the main driving force behind high birthrates — eliminate poverty and the birthrate drops dramatically, as is still being proved in the Asian “tiger” economies. I suggest you do some research into the REAL causes of poverty in the majority world instead of blaming the victim for problems caused by profligate consumerism in the rich world. For a good start read this book if you would like to understand the “issue” of high population growth rates in Africa: How Europe Underdeveloped Africa by Walter Rodney. You could continue with The Creation of World Poverty by Teresa Hayter. And that’s just the beginning of the story. Happy reading… and illumination.

        • Edith D Thurman

          Thank you! Keep them poor no access to health care or birth control and that’s what happens. Of course if you fix that problem then the “wealthy” wouldn’t have anyone to be slaves to them!

          • SergeantScrotes

            omg it’s all our fault! everything that’s wrong with them is OUR fault :”(

        • Pikakeet

          Africa’s not being forced to export plant goods, including food and flowers grown for the bouquet trade, they’re doing it because that’s one of the ways they have of bringing money into the country. It’s true that they should be charging more for what they’re making, but that’s not the rest of the world’s fault, that’s their fault for prioritizing undercutting the competition to get a reliable income source even if that means crap profit margins. I’m sure farmers in the rest of the world would be ecstatic if African farmers would raise prices on their goods because it would make farming the same goods in other parts of the world more viable.

    • David Yarbrough

      that is why we really need to start more commercially viable insect farming they are much healthier for us and the planet

      • Pikakeet

        Actually insect farming is no better for the planet than chicken farming in terms of the resources it takes up, and chickens produce meat, feathers and eggs as raw materials whereas insects only produce insect meat.

  • Auggiedoggy

    The healthiest, longest-lived human populations don’t eat a low carb diet so … next!

    • But they do eat a low-sugar, low-refined carbohydrate diet. And we don’t know if they’d be even healthier if they ate low-carb because that experiment has never been conducted.

      • Auggiedoggy

        Yes, they eat high-carb, whole natural foods diets. But keep drinking the Kool-Aid. lol

  • tltate1963

    I thought this article was very informative. Thank you.

    • Thanks titate1963–I’m so glad you found it helpful!

  • Dave Michaelson

    “As you can see from the nutrition information for cooked pinto beans,
    they are mostly made of starch (carbohydrate–something the body has no
    need for)”

    Simply not true. Go do some better research. The healthiest cultures throughout human history have all had carbohydrate-rich diets. I suppose I should have expected something like this though, after you said the Eskimos were healthy; Eskimos have historically had very short lifespans, suffered from scurvy, and every Eskimo skeleton examined showed signs of osteoporosis.

    • Dear Dave,

      I agree with you that there have been many cultures in human history who have eaten high-starch diets and been much healthier than the typical American is today. Their diets tended to be based on whole food sources of starch such as roots and fruits, and were low in processed carbohydrates.

      However, just because a group of people can be healthy eating natural starches does not mean that people need to eat starches to be healthy. There is undeniable scientific evidence proving that human beings have no dietary requirement for carbohydrate once weaned from breast milk. Even the fairly conservative Institute of Medicine agrees:

      “The lower limit of dietary carbohydrate compatible with life apparently is ZERO…” [Institute of Medicine and The Food and Nutrition Board 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). National Academics Press.]

      I believe the information you mention may refer to Eskimo health after the introduction of newer foods, but without knowing which studies you are referring to, I can’t be sure. I have written about Eskimo cardiovascular and metabolic health in case anyone is curious:

      • Eve

        Your OPINION is very interesting, but it’s just your opinion (which is sadly shared by too many others). Every point you make your articles can be disputed by people who are just as educated and credible as you are. Because there is this ‘standoff’ among the knowledgeable professionals, obviously everything is based on opinion NOT fact. We do not know enough about our food for anyone to make drastic recommendations to our diet; recommendations that risk limiting nutrients we may need. Even lectins and phytic acid probably have a use in protecting us from disease. I believe we can eat small amounts of all whole foods. Paleo and low carb advocates are going too far. Moderation in our ‘glutton’ culture is all we need, to assure we are getting all the nutrients we need to sustain life (especially those nutrients we have yet to discover). I wish you and everyone else who TELLS us how to eat would keep an open mind instead, and admit they could be wrong. It would help reduce the confusion and harm you may be doing to those less nutrition-savvy who believe everything they hear without questioning it. Especially if it is stated by someone with MD after their name. And by the way, NO MD has received the nutrition training in their medical curriculum to truly understand the vast science of nutrition.

  • joseph Spinelli

    Hi can you explain why the raw apricot seed is used in fighting cancer, high doses of B17 Laetrile.Thank you.

    • Hi Joseph

      Many potentially toxic plant compounds are isolated and studied as cancer-fighting agents due to their natural ability to kill living cells. It is very dangerous for humans to eat raw apricot seeds.

  • Adam

    At around the beginning of the article, it talks about how Eskimos lacked a grain diet and were healthy…That’s complete crap. They were not healthy, as their lifespan was no longer than 35 years. Cancer and heart disease was very common among them because they ate pure seal fat.

    When it also talks about how humans became shorter because of the introduction of the seed diet, that’s also false. Asian people were always naturally shorter because of mostly their genetics (your environment plays the biggest role in your appearance). Diet mainly plays a role in the longevity of your life, not your height. Homo floresiensis was a dwarf human species that lived 100,000 years ago, and did not have a grain diet (they were about 3 feet tall).

    You can absolutely be healthy and especially live long with a bean, grain and seed diet as long as you eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and vitamin/mineral supplements (just remember to cook your beans!).

    This article is so misleading and was probably written by meat enthusiasts.

    • Found the vegantard!

  • Cathy Isadoll

    I just read that tree nuts are considered a fruit,not a seed. This can get a little confusing. Here is what I just read : Best Answer: Beans may be pulses (at least most beans are pulses), but they are still seeds. If you plant them, they grow into a new bean plant.

    The main difference between beans and the grains you listed is that grains are monocotyledons and beans are dicotyledons. This is a major difference in the structure of the plant.

    Monocots are plants with “veins” which are essentially parallel, like grasses, the pine tree family, most of the evergreens actually, and some others.
    The seeds consist of one cotyledon… if you dissect the seed, it is one entity, not two halves.

    Dicots are plants with branching “veins”, which is everything else besides the grasses and pines etc. All the deciduous trees and leafy plants are dicots. The seed consists of two cotyledons, two halves. When you dissect a bean, you see the two halves.

    This difference is more than just looks. The differences are big enough that they can make a chemical which can poison all the dicots yet leave the monocots alive. That is why weed killer for lawns kills the “weed” yet allows the grasses to live.

  • Tre Toco

    I am a vegan. I won’t eat animals and make them suffer!

  • romain

    Do eat fermented vegetables they cary the nutrition of plants with the strength of probioticw without the nasty fat, hormons, pesticides, and calcium leaxhing protein that milk has!

  • Edith D Thurman

    The problem with GLUTEN….in the United States we have to genetically modified every thing so nothing can kill it. Our bread now has over twice as much gluten as the rest of the worlds, then we wonder why every one is getting sick from it! That’s why they call it Wonder bread, bread in the rest of the world can’t rise like that! It’s not natural! It’s now man made that’s what’s wrong with it! Quit screwing with Mother Nature!!!

    • Amanda Stockham

      …also…people buy shelf stable, preservative laden breads and glutens. SUCH a bad idea. The human body can’t break that crap down! Friends that I have encouraged off of regular glutens and onto sprouted grains or at the very least…grinding their flour IMMEDIATELY before they are about to bake the loaf of bread…well…magically their bodies LOVE bread. Imagine that lol Right. When loaves of bread have 50 ingredients from a store to keep it from molding on your counter…what do you think it will do in your stomach and color, people!? Bake a loaf of bread, leave it on the counter next to the store bought one, whichever one molds first WINS. Your body can probably break IT down better than the other. Especially if there are ingredients in the bread like dough conditioners, preservatives, and sugar sources that are NOT honey or organic cane sugar. Corn syrups, food colorings, and dough conditioners and extra glutens are killing humans. I am starting to think everyone knows and this is lol a painful approach to population control. Killing them softly…with Wonderbread.

  • Amanda Stockham

    And no….lol…I DO NOT work for any weight loss company or advise for any! lol

  • Patty

    A 40 year old born a vegan on YouTube dies of a heart attack! Eating animals does NOT cause hear disease, but sugar, flour, breads bagels rice crackers and process carbs does.

  • 1953reeg

    Dear Dr. Ede,
    If plants generally use chemical methods to deter predators, why would wheat, for example, have an addictive-like quality that encourages us to keep eating it?

  • Diana

    Dr. Ede, your article states the only two ways to eliminate lectins is through prolonged boiling or avoidance. I have heard PRESSURE COOKING (seeds, nuts, beans, etc.) is as effective or more effective in removing or “killing” lectins.
    I suffer from stiffness in the joints of my hands , wonder if lectins may be part of the cause). Thanks for your reply regarding pressure cooking vs. boiling to eliminate lectins

Last Modified: Sep 13, 2015