What Causes Cancer? Part I

Cancer as a Metabolic Disease by Thomas Seyfried

Thomas Seyfried PhD, a brain cancer researcher with over 25 years of experience in the field, gave a groundbreaking presentation about cancer at the Ancestral Health Symposium held at Harvard Law School this past August. The three main take-home points of his talk (spoiler alert!):

1.  Cancer is not caused by genetic mutations
2.  Cancer is a mitochondrial disease
3.  Cancer can be treated with ketogenic diets


After attending his lecture, which challenged everything I thought I knew about cancer, I was inspired to read his new book, entitled Cancer as a Metabolic Disease: On the Origin, Management, and Prevention of Cancer.  In it he lays out 400+ pages of dense scientific evidence–complete with 1,740 references, and dozens of charts, graphs and full-color glossy images to make his case.  It’s a powerful and compelling argument.  The book is expensive, and would be nearly impossible to understand without a strong scientific background, but the secrets inside are so important that I wanted to make them available to everyone–they simply must be shared.  This series of articles is dedicated to my friends, family, colleagues, and patients who are battling cancer or who have loved ones suffering with cancer.  May this information bring you hope.

This first article will focus on Dr. Seyfried’s first point—that cancer is not caused by genetic mutations.

THE GENE THEORY OF CANCER

In case your basic biology is rusty:  Our genes are made of DNA; coils of coded information that tell our cells exactly how to build all the proteins they need to conduct their daily business.  These blueprints have to be flexible, because cells need different proteins under different circumstances.  Cells must be able to adapt to various conditions, such as stress, injury, infection, temperature changes, and food supply.  So, genes contain lots of special controls that can be turned on and off, depending on what’s going on in and around the cell.

I was taught in medical school that cancer is about genes going haywire–something evil comes along, like a toxic chemical or a beam of radiation, attacks your DNA, and poof–you’ve got cancer (unless you are a cartoon character, in which case you develop superpowers).  Mutant cells start dividing like crazy and taking over your body.  I was also taught that the way to get rid of cancer is to flood it with toxic chemicals and radiation…hmmm…

The company line is that cancer is caused by mutations (changes) in DNA that transform healthy, well-behaved cells into reckless, ravenous, immortal renegades.  These mutations hijack the set of instructions encoded in the cells’ DNA, and scientists think these mutations cause cells to go wild.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HEALTHY CELLS AND CANCER CELLS              

Cancer cells are very different from normal cells.  They grow independently, ignoring the anti-growth signals and death cues that would normally keep healthy cells from getting out of control.  Cancer cells create their own blood supply and can divide forever.  Cancer cells lose many of the physical features of their mother cells; they are usually smaller, and may be disfigured or even shapeless.  Sometimes they fuse with each other or with neighboring cells, creating strange hybrids.  The most aggressive types of cancer cells invade local tissues and/or break loose and travel in the bloodstream to distant parts of the body (metastasize).

Hundreds of thousands of different mutations have been discovered in cancerous cells, but it is actually rare to find genetic mutations in healthy cells because healthy cells have stable DNA.  DNA is the most important molecule in the body so evolution has made sure it is well-protected.  The DNA of healthy cells is not fragile.  It would not have survived all this time if it were.  There are even “caretaker genes” that are designed to maintain and repair defects in DNA, because lots of things in the natural environment can injure DNA—even things we think of as healthy, such as sunlight and vegetables.

Cancer cells have unstable DNA, which mutates easily and is therefore constantly changing.  This is why there are so many mutations found in cancer cells.  This “genomic instability” is viewed as a strong suit by scientists who believe in the mutation theory.  They think that the tumor cells keep mutating to improve themselves, and that the ones with the most clever mutations are the ones which survive best and reproduce best (Darwinism—survival of the fittest). They think of cancerous cells as invincible—as stronger, faster, and smarter than healthy cells. But this isn’t true.

Yes, most tumor cells are growing faster than most of their healthy neighboring cells, but this is not because they are speedier.  It’s because they are unregulated.  All the healthy cells around them are capable of growing just as fast, but there are checks and balances in place to prevent them from growing willy-nilly.  When necessary, they can grow just as fast, if not faster than tumor cells do.  For example, when the liver is injured and healthy cells need to grow rapidly to replace the injured cells, their growth rate is the same as for liver cancer cells during tumor progression.

Tumor cells are more vulnerable than healthy cells.  This is actually how radiation and chemotherapy work.  Radiation and chemotherapy are toxic to all cells, cancerous or not, but they are more toxic to tumor cells.  If tumor cells were more robust than normal cells, these therapies would kill off all your healthy cells and only the big ugly tumor would survive.  Instead, people are treated to the brink of destruction with chemicals and radiation while doctors cross their fingers hoping more tumor cells will die than healthy cells, and that patients will survive the therapy.

Fragile DNA is not flexible enough or coordinated enough to respond to challenges. It is, after all, the stability of healthy DNA that allows our cells to adapt to stressful environments.  Tumor cells are also more sensitive to heat (fever) and to starvation.  When the body is stressed, the tumor cells are the first ones to go.  These are not supervillain clones.

Just because cancer cells have lots of mutations doesn’t necessarily mean that mutations cause cancer.  Seyfried argues that mutations are just red herrings (no disrespect to the herring community intended).

POKING HOLES IN THE MUTATION THEORY

The “oncogenic paradox” refers to this puzzle:

  • A huge variety of things in the world—from viruses to radiation to chemicals to oxidation—can damage DNA and cause mutations.  Seyfried quotes Nobel-prize winner Alfred Szent-Györgyi:“…

“…it is getting more and more difficult to find something that is not carcinogenic.”

  • There are hundreds of thousands of unique mutations associated with tumors. A single colon cancer cell can contain 11,000 mutations!  The sheer number and type of mutations found in cancer cells are so serious that they would cause a healthy embryo to spontaneously abort, yet cancer cells somehow soldier on.
  • The transformation of a healthy cell into a cancerous cell (malignant transformation) happens in the very same specific way every time.

How can all of these different and unpredictable events leading to all of those random mutations always cause exactly the same outcome?  That’s like saying no matter how you attack an orc—whether you stab him in the belly with a sword, throw a rock at his head, or push him off a cliff—his left arm always falls off.  Preposterous.

No specific mutation is a reliable marker for any one type of cancer.

There is not one example of a mutation that causes the same type of cancer every time.  Even those mutations most strongly associated with certain cancers only cause cancer in certain people.

Cancer cells within the very same tumor can have different mutation patterns.

Mutated genes thought to be strongly associated with cancer (“oncogenes”) sometimes do promote tumor growth, but sometimes they inhibit tumor growth, and sometimes they even do both.

Transplant experiments make the strongest case.

Here’s the thing:  If you transplant mutated cancer cell DNA into a healthy cell, the healthy cell almost never becomes cancerous. Only 2 out of 24 experiments were successful in transforming normal cells into cancer cells (and scientists couldn’t be sure that viral contamination wasn’t to blame).  These results essentially kill the mutation theory dead on the spot.

THE WAR ON CANCER

Just think about it:  if cancer is a genetic disease, based on hundreds of thousands of mutations, what are we supposed to do, create hundreds of thousands of different drugs to treat it?

President Nixon declared war on cancer 40 years ago.  The mutation theory of cancer has been solidly in place and guiding research since 1981, yet despite the enormous amounts of money, time, and energy that have been poured into cancer research since, we continue to lose the war against this killer disease.  1500 Americans die every day from cancer.  Researchers now place hope in the Cancer Genome Project, which they see as the shining future of cancer treatment.  They have already started using the genetic fingerprints of cancer to design expensive, high-tech drugs that specifically target the unique DNA pattern of individual cancer cells.  More than 700 of these smart bombs have been developed so far, yet none of them have saved a single life.  The vast majority of whatever progress we have made against cancer has been due to identification of and education about lifestyle risk factors (such as smoking), not due to advances based on genetic theories.

Seyfried argues that the reason why we are making so little progress is because we are fighting the wrong enemy.  Genes, he argues, are not the enemy, and they are not in the driver’s seat.  Instead, they are innocent victims of the cancer.  They are damaged, destabilized, and randomly mutated by the cancerous process.  But if genetic mutations do not cause cancer, what does?  How do cancer cells get by with all of these mutations?  What keeps them going?  And what causes all of these mutations in the first place?

To read the next article in this series, click HERE.

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REFERENCES

Seyfried, Thomas N.  Cancer as a Metabolic Disease:  On the Origin, Management, and Prevention of Cancer.  Hoboken, NJ:  Wiley, 2012.

 

 

 

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  • Joel

    Thank you for the information; I’m eager to read the next. Your web site is a veritable treasure trove of wonderfully clear distillations. Again, thank you!

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      Thank you so much, Joel–distillation and clarity are exactly what I’m going for here, so it’s great to hear that the articles are coming across that way. I’m so glad to know the information is helpful. I am hoping to have part 2 ready by tomorrow night…

  • http://www.facebook.com/rose.m.smith Rose Nunez Smith

    Thank you for this, Dr. Ede. I have a strong interest in cancer — nearly everyone in my birth family has had it/died from it — and have (thankfully) been eating VLC to ZC for the last 5+ years. I started eating this way for weight loss, like most people, but the current wave of interest in keto eating and cancer (Eugene Fine, for example) has really been gratifying. I’m looking forward to the next two installments!

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      Hello, Rose

      I sincerely hope that your diet will protect you from your family’s fate; given what I’ve read, you should be in good shape:) I, too, eat a VLC/ZC diet and have numerous family members who have been treated for cancer, and one aunt who died from it. Thanks for writing and sharing your story.

  • http://twitter.com/mem_lewis Mary Lewis

    Thanks so much for taking this on, Dr. Ede. Not everyone is a scientist and this info needs to get out there for the use of all. I very much appreciate your work and especially look forward to these next two installments!

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      Hi Mary Lewis

      Thank you very much for your kind words. This book was a bear to read but so amazing I just wish that everyone could know what is inside:)

  • http://www.facebook.com/pete.greenway Pete Greenway

    Thank you! You’re making it easy to follow a complex subject. Looking forward to the next installment. You are a wonderful resource and I’m linking others to your site and blog. Thtrupowerful medicinewhat we

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      Hi Pete

      Thank you very much for your kind words and for passing along the information to others. I really appreciate it. And I am so glad especially to hear that the writing is easy to follow.

  • ruby

    Thank you for the summary! I watched Dr. Seyfried’s lecture and was amazed how all roads lead to the “ketogenic” Rome :-)
    In it, he says “cancer is a metabolic mitochondrial disease caused by multiple different things in the environment damaging respiration. This then leads to a retrograde signalling system, where mitochondria signal to the nucleus “we don’t have enough energy” and the nucleus then turns on oncogenes. The oncogenes are compensatory, their drive fermentation (both glucose and glutamine fermentations) but if the cells continue to ferment, the nucleus becomes unstable so you get genetic instability as a secondary downstream eip-phenomenon of damage to respiration..” And about conventional treatment “as soon as you radiate the brain (in cancer patients), you release a lot of inflammatory cytokines and you allow glutamate to go into the microenvironment. The glutamate is then taken up by glial cells and converted into glutamine. Because the neurons have been killed, the glutamine now goes into the tumor cells and is fermented. To reduce inflammation they give steroids. Steroids make your blood sugar go up to the level of a diabetic. So you have powerful glucose and powerful glutamine and together they wlll fuel the tumor.This is the demise of the cancer patient. The reason we have few people surviving this is because of standard of care. It has to be changed”

  • http://www.facebook.com/judy.tsafrir Judy Suzanne Reis Tsafrir

    This is such an important topic. Thank you for taking it on and making the subject accessible to the lay person. This information needs to get out there.

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      Thank you, Dr. T…
      By the way, for those of you do not know about Dr. Tsafrir, she is a child psychiatrist/psychoanalyst who maintains a beautifully-written blog at http://judytsafrirmd.com/ . Her latest entry about meditation is excellent.

  • Charles Grashow

    http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/7/1/7
    Cancer as a metabolic disease
    Thomas N Seyfried* and Laura M Shelton

    Conclusions
    “Evidence is reviewed supporting a general hypothesis that cancer is primarily a disease of energy metabolism. All of the major hallmarks of the disease can be linked to impaired mitochondrial function. In order to maintain viability, tumor cells gradually transition to substrate level phosphorylation using glucose and glutamine as energy substrates. While cancer causing germline mutations are rare, the abundance of somatic genomic abnormalities found in the majority of cancers can arise as a secondary consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Once established, somatic genomic instability can contribute to further mitochondrial defects and to the metabolic inflexibility of the tumor cells. Systemic metastasis is the predicted outcome following protracted mitochondrial damage to cells of myeloid origin. Tumor cells of myeloid origin would naturally embody the capacity to exit and enter tissues. Two major conclusions emerge from the hypothesis; first that many cancers can regress if energy intake is restricted and, second, that many cancers can be prevented if energy intake is restricted. Consequently, energy restricted diets combined with drugs targeting glucose and glutamine can provide a rational strategy for the longer-term management and prevention of most cancers.”

  • http://www.PostPeakLiving.com aangel

    Dr. Ede, thank you for your writeup and review of Dr. Seyfried’s book. I’m including a link to it in my newsletter next week! (And I’ve personally been ketogenic or at least eating <100g carbohydrates for just over a year now. And of course no grains or simple carbs.)

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      Hi aangel,

      Thank you kindly for passing along the writeup–I really appreciate it. The more people this information can reach, the better:) And congratulations on your 1+ years of low carb eating!

      • http://www.PostPeakLiving.com aangel

        You’re very welcome. It’s a small list, just under 5,000 people, but they are a committed group of people in many areas of life.

  • Someone, Somewhere

    Dr. Ede,

    Thank you for another fascinating, useful post. I’ve learned a lot already, and look forward to learning more in the coming installments.

    I know ketogenic diets are not the focus on this post, but since you mention them, I’d like to mention something I read about them this morning, and get your feedback:

    I read an interview with Loren Cordain (author of The Paleo Diet), who cites an obscure publication on autopsies of centuries-old Inuit mummies—who apparently ate diets of 100% meat or extremely close to it—that showed that they had significant atherosclerosis. He says that atherosclerosis, in and of itself, does not cause myocardial infarctions—he says it’s the inflammatory carbs that cause the rupture of the plaques that causes MI—but that doesn’t change that fact that an all-meat diet seems to cause the unhealthy atherosclerosis in the first place. The moral of the story—if I’m reading Cordain right—is that eating some plant material is essential for optimal health, as long as the plant material is not pro-inflammatory.

    From what I can tell, the plant material that fits this bill best is whole fruit. As I might have mentioned before, my diet consists only of meat, whole fruit (I’ve given up juices and starches, thanks in part to your encouragement), sea salt, and spring water. I’ve tried giving up fruit, temporarily, but when I do, the cravings never wane, suggesting to me that my body is wanting it for optimal health, not simply the fulfillment of a hypothetical addiction.

    I understand that your body does not tolerate fruit well, and you do seem to agree with me that fruit is generally healthier than other plant parts. Regardless, I’m curious what your thoughts are on including fruit in the diet of people who can tolerate it, in light of Dr. Seyfried’s and Dr. Cordain’s research.

    Cordain’s interview is here: http://www.meandmydiabetes.com/2010/03/24/loren-cordain-caution-on-saturated-fats-disaster-with-grains-will-be-public-after-march-25th/

    The original paper on the Inuit mummy autopsies (which I haven’t yet read) is here: http://www.meandmydiabetes.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Atherosclerosis-in-Pre-Westernized-Inuit.pdf

    SS

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      Hi SS

      Thank you for the kind feedback–I do not know the answer to this question but I will look forward to looking into it and reading the articles you link to as soon as I have time:)

      • Someone, Somewhere

        You’re welcome, Dr. Ede. If and when you get a chance to read the articles, I hope you’ll respond either here or in a future blog post (perhaps the one on the ketogenic component of Dr Seyfried’s theory).

  • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1571118099 Diana Smiley Bartkowiak

    There is only one ‘true’ cause to all disease; it’s poisoning at the cellular level. Only two causes for cancer/ all diseases.. an acidic environment, (the body) and lack of oxygen to the cells. In theory only a good balanced pH can cure all diseases regardless of the ‘diet pattern’ of choice is. Some find this cure in an all vegan diet, an all raw diet, a 75% raw eating diet, some even a Paleo diet and of course this kind of diet. The whole healing power is in Our pH balance, & it will always be more acid or more alkaline according to “What we eat!” the simple 80% Alkaline foods to 20% acidic diet will cause this balance. And our best food choices should be healthy- live foods. Live foods creates oxygen to the cells- and creates a balanced environment. The pH rule is for all living creation. We are all like a body of water.. we must stay properly pH (potential Hydrogen) which is the “POWER to HEAL”

  • Rachel Pappas

    Dr. Ede,

    Thanks for a very clear explanation of the gene theory vs metabolic theory. You did great making a very complicated subject easy to understand. I just have a coupla questions (and not to argue because clearly there’s something to environment/toxins/ and I think we’ve seen plenty to show that cancer cells are very metabolic and that we have some control over genetic activity).

    But why is it that regardless of what you do, once you’ve metastasized, you almost always die of the cancer? Folks who adopt ketogenic diets, folks who become vegan, folks who do tons of cancer-fighting herbs under the care of a knowledgeable MD or herbalist, still almost always die of their cancer once they’ve metastasized, even though some of them are well managed for longer than with conventional approaches. So how is it that the genes continue to mutate (assuming that’s what’s happening when the cancer cells stop responding) no matter what you do?

    Also, why is it that certain mutations are prevalent in certain ethnic groups (e.g., BRCA in Ashkenazi Jews, Hispanics and African Americans?) Some of the healthiest folks I know have tested positive for the BRCA gene as have their parents and sisters. Why would that be?And thanks in advance for answering as clearly as you presented your articles.

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      Hi Rachel
      Thanks for your kind words and for your excellent questions. I wish i had excellent answers for you! I am not an oncologist, and at this point the extent of my knowledge about cancer metabolism comes almost entirely from Dr. Seyfried’s book, and he did not address your questions within the book itself. If I come across any helpful information, I will write more…

    • tonibark

      Based on what I’ve read of Sayfreid’s work, there are inherited genetic markers that are associated with cancer, the cancer is not inevitable. many people have the BRCA gene and do not go on to develop cancer. epigenetics are responsible for gene expression or supression so while having certain genes increase your risk, they are not a certainty, the metabolic issues must also be present.

    • James Peters

      Mitochondrial damage leads to genomic damage. Also he states cancerous cells might fuse with certain immune system ones and this might lead to the cancer spreading. Also BRAC1 does not cause cancer by itself – but rather predisposes one for cancer because it inhibits the function of the mitochondria, and therefore the ability to generate energy through oxidative pathways.

  • vanessa

    hello dr. im very much worried i diagnosed with a cervical cancer 2B non cergical, doc wants me to under go chemo and i refuse it,becoz i heard many people that chemo has side effect. We’ve been trying to do the ketogenic diet on our own, but we’ve been searching for a professional to help us get it perfect! I would really appreciate to hear from you. My email is vaniesgad27@yahoo.com… vanessa

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      Dear Vanessa,

      I’m sorry to hear that you are dealing with cancer, and sincerely hope that you will be able to find a nutritional approach that will help the body to remove cancer cells. Many people have written to me asking if I know of clinicians who work directly with cancer patients who wish to follow a ketogenic diet as part of their therapy, but unfortunately I do not personally know of any. However, I am listing some resources below and hope they may be of some use to you. I wish you the best in your search:

      ketonutrition.org (by Dominic D’Agostino PhD)

      Miriam Kalamian (www.dietarytherapies.com); Hamilton,
      Montana. Master’s level nutritionist who used a ketogenic diet to help
      her 4 year old son with brain cancer.

      Matthew’s Friends is an parent-run site about the use of ketogenic diets in children with epilepsy: http://site.matthewsfriends.org/

      The Charlie Foundation, which promotes the use of ketogenic diets in the treatment of children with epilepsy here: http://www.charliefoundation.org/

      Samra Savioz (Ketogenic Diet Consulting)

      KetoTherapeutics (Ketogenic Diet Consulting and Food Plans)

      Also, one of my readers posted this recommendation on one of my cancer articles:

      Tod wrote:

      “Try Elaine Cantin’s book ‘The cantin Ketogenic Diet’ which is available on
      Amazon. She aslo has a Facebook page “Elaine’s Alternative Tips For
      Cancer” where various people ask questions and give comments. She
      successfully cured her own breast cancer with her diet. Her diet is a moderate protein, high fat diet, no processed foods at all and NO carbs or sugar and lots of veggies, especially green ones and things like red cabbage and cauliflower to name some. She also has some ketogenic friendly recipes for desserts like muffins and cookies in the book for those of us with a sweet
      tooth. ;-)

      • Dave Lightseer

        I bought Elaine Cantin’s book based on the recommendations made by D’Agostino in his interview with Dr Mercola and his Amazon review. I have not taken the time to make any review of the book on Amazon, but I would just like to make a few comments here.

        First, I’m not a doctor, and I have not been diagnosed with cancer. Cancer has affected many members of my family, however. I’m inclined to believe in the benefits of ketosis as prevention and treatment for this disease.

        Cantin’s book, unfortunately, was poorly written and reads like a first draft. Her “editors” apparently forgot high school English grammar. The book is plagued by run-on sentences, among other distracting errors. I got tired of reading the exact same things over and over again. The author cited too many secondary sources of information. She did her homework, but telling her readers to ‘look it up’ without providing much in the way of critical analysis left me feeling like I would have been better off just using Google. I would say the same about her recipes, too. If you test your blood glucose regularly, you will discover which foods you can trust to have in your diet and which ones will knock you out of ketosis. Then you can use Google to look for recipes and find much more variety than the few Elaine has in her book.

        That being said, Elaine’s story is inspirational. Perhaps if she updated and revised her book, I would be inclined to recommend it in the future.

        • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

          Hello Dave

          Thank you again for taking the time to post helpful information for readers on my site. I have not read her book myself so your review is much appreciated!

    • Ellen

      Hello Vanessa, I just wanted to let you know that I have written an eBook on implementing a ketogenic diet to treat cancer that you may find helpful. It was written in collaboration with Dr. Seyfried, and is pretty detailed about how to implement the diet, how to monitor your progress, what foods are allowed/restricted, supplements, etc. The eBook is available here on my website:

      http://www.ketogenic-diet-resource.com/cancer-diet.html

      Ellen Davis
      http://www.ketogenic-diet-resource.com

      Thank you, Dr. Ede, for allowing me to share this information here.

  • tlight

    Hi Dr. Ede, I understand that you are not able to give medical advice, but could you direct me to someone who can in NYC. I am a 35 year old female and was diagnosed with breast cancer last week. It has only been a week, but I am terrified at the prospect of surgery, radiation, chemo and hormone therapy. I am eager to learn more about the ketogenic diet before I make any final decisions about my course of surgery and treatment. If at all possible, please direct me to someone I can communicate with regarding my situation. Thank you.

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      Hello, tlight
      I wish I knew ersonally of clinicians who could help you; this is the most common question I get from readers. I would suggest you try Dr. Dominic D’Agostino’s website to see his list of resources: http://www.ketonutrition.org I wish you well~

  • tonibark

    wow, job well done

    I have been a fan of Thomas for a few years, interviewing him and writing about his theories in papers for graduate school. You wrote a clear and easy to understand synopsis for the average reader

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      Hello, Tonibark
      Thank you very much for taking the time to both read the synopsis and to tell me what you thought of it. It means a lot to me coming from someone so familiar with his work–thank you.

  • tonibark

    and, BTW, I have been successfully using glucose restricted ketogenic diets for my patients for a few years now. Wish I knew all of this when I first started practicing medicine years ago.

    • http://diagnosisdiet.com/ Dr. Ede

      So many readers have written in to ask me if I know of physicians who use ketogenic diets to treat cancer and I have been at a loss to guide them in this regard. I’m glad to hear that you have had success in your clinical work using dietary approaches; very encouraging! I wish more of my patients would consider even a simple low-carbohydrate diet for mood symptoms–

  • John

    Having looked at your Parts 1-4 of Thomas Seyfried’s work, to greatly simply this, is it too simple to say or addiction to simple sugar, the sugar in beer and social alcohol beverages, and no exercise to burn this sugar up, is killing us?